the 0 (zero) setting as the default for all three functions

control This variable can have up to eight settings, with the 0 (zero) setting as the default for all three functions, when


the ma chine and con trol power is turned on Zero set ting means the func tion is ac tive Press ing


the RESET but ton or Power Off will clear both sys tem vari ables #3004 and #3003


System Variable


Feedhold


Feedrate


Exact Stop


busbar Machine


#3004


Override


Check


0


Enabled


Enabled


Enabled


1


Disabled


Enabled


Enabled


2


Enabled


Disabled


Enabled


3


Disabled


Disabled


Enabled


4


Enabled


Enabled


Disabled


5


Disabled


Enabled


Disabled


6


Enabled


Disabled


Disabled


7


Disabled


Disabled


Disabled


The #3004 vari


able con trols three states of op er a tion:


o


Feedhold


o


Feedrate over ride


o


Exact stop check mode


Make sure to un der stand how these op er a tions work be fore attempting to use them in macros


u


Operation State 1 – FEEDHOLD


When the feedhold is dis abled in a macro, us ing the vari able #3004, and the feedhold but ton


on the con trol op er a tion panel is pressed, the ma chine stops in the sin gle block mode If the sys –


tem vari able #3003 (de scribed ear lier) has dis abled the sin gle block mode, there will be no sin gle


block mode op er a tion avail able at all


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FANUC CNC Custom Macros


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Chapter 16


u


Operation State 2 – FEEDRATE OVERRIDE


When the feedrate over ride is dis abled in a macro, us ing the vari able #3004, all ma chin ing


will be done at 100% feedrate, re gard less of the set ting of the feedrate over ride switch on automatic punching machine the op –


er a tion panel 100% feedrate is de fined as the feedrate value spec i fied in the CNC pro gram or


macro, us ing the F-ad dress and ap plies equally to feedrate per min ute and feedrate per rev o lu tion


It angle cutting machine works the same for Eng lish and met ric units of feedrate data in put


u


Operation State 3 – EXACT STOP CHECK


When punching machine the ex act stop check is dis abled in a macro, us ing the vari able #3004, there will be no

Tags: , , , ,

Depending on the actual machining requirements

or 1 en tries) Depending on the actual machining requirements, these settings Drilling Machine for Plate may be changed by a se ries of sys –


tem vari ables These vari ables are:


#3003


busbar Machine


Control of single block, wait signal for end signal (FIN)


#3004


Control of feedhold, feedrate override, exact stop check


#3005


Settings (System Settings)


The de fault set ting for #3003 and #3004 is 0, mean ing that no fea tures are dis abled


Single Block Control


Sys tem vari able #3003 is used for the au to matic op er a tion con trol of the sin gle block switch


Sin gle block may not be de sir able in cer tain ma chin ing op er a tions, for ex am ple in thread ing or


tap ping and some spe cial operations


Vari able #3003 can have four set tings, where the 0 (zero) set ting is the de fault when the ma –


chine and con trol power is turned on (the same as ac tive or en abled):


System Variable


Single Block


M-S-T Function


#3003


Mode


Completion


0


Enabled


Waits for completion


1


Disabled


Waits for completion


2


Enabled


Does not wait for completion


3


Disabled


Does not wait for completion


195


Copyright 2005, Dished Head Punching Machine punching machine”>automatic punching machine Industrial Press Inc, New York, NY – wwwindustrialpresscom


FANUC CNC Custom Macros


196


Chapter 16


Sin gle block mode in may be en abled or dis abled us ing this sys tem vari able in a macro If the


sin gle block is dis abled us ing the vari able #3003, the ma chine con trol panel set ting of the sin gle


block switch has no ef fect on the re sult The sin gle block op er a tion of the ma chine will be dis abled


re gard less whether the Sin gle Block switch is turned ON or OFF (OFF po si tion is rec om mended)


Press ing the RESET but ton or Power Off switch also clears the sys tem vari ables #3003-#3004


M-S-T Functions Control


An other fea ture of the vari able #3003 deals with the com ple tion of an aux il iary func tion when


used in a sin gle block, par tic u larly the M-codes (mis cel la neous func tions) There are three aux il –


iary func tions avail able on Fanuc CNC sys tems, of ten called the M-S-T or MST

Tags:

even in blocks with out a cutting motion

performed, even in blocks with out a cutting motion Exact stop check provides


spe Drilling Machine for Plate busbar bending machine cial means to check a tool po si tion with the pro gram commands G09 (non-modal blocks), or


G61 (modal blocks) This state is not avail able on Fanuc 0


Ex am ple of Spe cial Tap ping Operation


busbar Machine


In Chap ter 8 (macro O8004) in tro duced a spe cial tap ping macro (or a tap ping macro as a cy cle)


Al though cor rect in prin ci ple, it did not pro vide built-in safety fea tures The macro re quired that


when pro cessed by the con trol sys tem all over rides must be set to 100% This re quire ment is dif fi –


cult to main tain and se ri ous ma chin ing prob lems could hap pen Us ing var i ous modes of the vari –


able set tings will dis able the feedhold, the feedrate over ride and the sin gle block modes If the


ex


act stop check should not be dis


abled, the macro def


i


ni


tions of the two vari


ables will be


#3003=1, and #3004=3 If the ex act stop check should be dis abled, the macro def i ni tions of the


two vari ables will be #3003=1, and #3004=7 See the above ta ble for de tails


As sys tem vari ables automatic punching machine #3003 and #3004 are of ten used for spe cial cy cles, for ex am ple, a cus –


tom cy cle for tap ping (de scribed later in the hand book) In this macro ex am ple, we want to sim u –


late the ef fect of the G84 fixed cy cle, ex cept the cut ting feedrate on the way in will be 80% of the


given feedrate and on the way out 120% of the given feedrate The tap ping macro will be called at


the cur rent X and Y tool lo ca tion


u


Macro call (in English units):


First, the G65 block has to be de fined with all re quired ar gu ments and their as sign ments:


G65 P8020 R035 Z115 S750 T36


+


where 锟?


R = (#18) R-level clearance equivalent


Z = (#26) Z-depth


S = (#19) Spindle speed (r/min)


T = (#20) Number of threads per inch (TPI)


Other ar gu ments could be added, for ex am ple, cal cu la tion of the tap ping depth, au to matic cal –


cu la tion of the top clear ance (known as the R-level in G84 cy cle), etc For the pur pose

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the subject pre sented, there is no benefit in complicating

of the subject pre sented, there is no benefit in complicating the macro Z0 of Drilling Machine for Plate the part is the top face – note


the pos i tive value of the Z-depth (forced as neg a tive in the macro)


Copyright 2005, Industrial Press Inc, New York, NY – FANUC CNC Custom Macros


AUTO MODE OPERATIONS


199


busbar Machine


u


Special tapping macro design:


O8020 (SPECIAL TAPPING MACRO)


#3003 = 1


Disable single block setting


G00 Z[ABS[#18]] S#19 M03


Rapid to positive R-level + spindle rotation


#3004 = 7


Disable feedhold, feedrate override, and exact stop check


G01 Z-[ABS[#26]] F[#19/#20*08] M05


Feed to depth at 80% of feedrate – stop spindle


Z#18 F[#19/#20*12] M04


Feed back to R-level at 120% feedrate – reverse spindle


#3004 = 0


Enable feedhold, feedrate override, and exact stop check


M05


Stop spindle


M03


Restore normal spindle rotation


#3003 = 0


Enable single block setting


M99


End of macro


%


Note that both vari ables #3003 and #3004 are used twice This is im por tant – if a par tic u lar


state of a set ting is changed for the macro only, it should be changed back, when the macro ex its


Al though some ma chin ing cen ters do not re quire stop Dished Head Punching Machine ping the spin dle be tween M03 and M04 or


M04 and M03, it is a safe prac tice to use the M05 in the macro any way – it saves the spin dle


Systems Settings


Sys tem set tings – rep re sented by the last vari able #3005 in this se ries – re late to the cur rent val –


ues of cer tain ba sic sys tem con fig u ra tions Sys tem vari able #3005 may not be avail able on Fanuc con trols 10/11/15


Typ i cal sys tem set tings in clude:


o


Compatibility between controls (for example CNC Angle Line FS-15 vs FS-16/18/21)


o


Automatic insertion of block numbers (sequence numbers – using the N-address)


o


English or metric input of dimensional values (using G20 and G21 respectively)


o


EIA or ISO mode selection for the output code


o


TV (Test Vertical) check performed or not performed


– the TV check is only applied to punched tape equipment


Bi nary val ues are au to mat i c

programmed with the address M

func tions:


MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS – also known as M-codes (most common)


M


programmed with the address M – for example: M08


SPINDLE FUNCTIONS – also known as S-codes


S


programmed with the address S – for example: S1250


busbar Machine


TOOL FUNCTIONS – also known as T-codes


T


programmed with the address T – for example: T05 for milling or T0202 for turning


2 If the M-S-T completion is set to ‘Wait for completion’ :


The next block of the program will not be executed


until the M-S-T function initiated is completed


2 If the M-S-T completion angle machine is set to ‘Do not wait for completion’ :


The next block of the program will be executed


without the wait for the initiated M-S-T function


For ex am ple, if the sys tem vari able #3003 is set to one (1), that means the sin gle block mode


is dis abled, and the pend ing M-S-T func tions have to be fully com pleted, be fore the next block is


ex e cuted This is a typ i cal mode of the built-in G81 drill ing cy cle No ad di tional M-S-T func notching machine tion


should be pro grammed un less the pre vi ous block has been com pleted The vari able #3003 is de –


signed for such sit u a tions The macro en try is sim ple – note the re quired mode must al ways be


pro grammed in pairs – ON/OFF or OFF/ON The G81 equiv a lent set ting will be:


O8019


#3003 = 1


Disable single block, wait for M-S-T functions completion


< tool motions 锟?>


#3003 = 0


Enable single block, wait for M-S-T functions completion


M99


%


Copyright 2005, Industrial Press Inc, New York, NY – wwwindustrialpresscom


FANUC CNC Custom Macros


AUTO MODE OPERATIONS


197


Most CNC lathes may ben e fit from these func tions a lit tle more than ma chin ing cen ters


Re gard less of the ap pli ca tion (mill ing or turning), punching machine an important re minder:


Be careful when activating the state of the M-S-T functions !


Feedhold, Feedrate, and Exact Check Control


Sys tem vari able #3004 is sim i lar to the #3003, but is used for au to matic op er a tion con trol of


the feedhold switch, the feedrate over ride switch, and the ex act stop check

Tags:

Pressure environment: the use of motion controller for pressure control

Pressure control is often used in presses, grinding and testing systems. These applications often require the control of pressure increases, the complexity of the control and precision is much higher than the ordinary relief valve or pressure regulator can be achieved. Modern applications can take full advantage of the net force. This advantage is achieved by the use of differential control, that is, the pressure on both sides of the piston  steel plate punching machine and their corresponding area multiplied by the force, and then rodless force minus the rod cavity force to obtain a net force.
Now commonly used closed-loop control method is to compensate for the viscosity of the media to achieve the precise control of pressure. The use of proven PID algorithms is much more precise than the limited proportional control that can be provided by mechanical devices with springs. This special feature allows us to correct and reduce the overshoot while controlling the pressure.

boring machine

What is stress and why is it so important to precise control?
Pressure is the force per unit area, that is, the total force than the total force area. The pressure in the hydraulic system is generated by applying force to the oil in the constant volume system or adding oil to the constant volume system. In this paper, we will ignore the effect of thermal expansion.
The basic formula of pressure change:
This formula tells us that the pressure with the capacity and bulk modulus of elasticity β change, while the volume elastic modulus β reflects the liquid compression. For example, the oil has a bulk modulus of elasticity of about 200,000 psi and a bulk modulus of elasticity of about 312,000 psi. This means  punch machine for Head that if the capacity is reduced by 0.1%, the oil pressure will increase by 200 psi and the water pressure will increase by 312 psi. In other words, water is more difficult to compress than oil.
The following formula defines the effect of time on force and pressure:
That is, assuming that the volume and bulk modulus of elasticity are constant, we can compute the force and the rate of change of pressure at any time, given the known velocity, flow rate, and current capacity.
Next we will focus on the formula (2), (3).
Application of Formulas
Pressure can be controlled through a variety of ways, commonly used method is the use of servo valve or servo valve with proportional valve. Equation 2 shows that in order to increase the pressure, liquid must be injected into the chamber. The rate of liquid addition should be proportional to the expected increase in pressure. When the pressure reaches the desired value, the filling is stopped and the system remains constant. In practice, a small amount of leakage is always present and the controller must add liquid to the system at a rate of liquid leakage. Therefore, the net flow rate Q is always zero and the pressure change rate is also zero. To reduce the pressure, the spool must be adjusted to allow fluid to flow through the valve body. When the desired pressure is reached, the valve is closed again to keep the pressure constant. The key here is that the pressure change rate is determined by the flow rate rather than the pressure itself.
If the system is designed properly, a typical proportional valve can be used for pressure control. The key lies in the body of the A port and B between the mouth to set up a special gap or pore. Equation 2 and Equation 3 can be used to calculate the desired leak rate, given the maximum ideal pressure drop rate. The motion controller must control the valve body so that it supplies liquid to the system at a rate equivalent to the rate at which the liquid is lost through the pores. If the flow rate is too low, the pressure will be reduced with the flow of liquid. If the flow is too high, the pressure will increase. The advantage of this method is that when the system is damped by the role of movement does not produce severe vibration.
The significance of control
In a hydraulic drive system, the pressure may increase rapidly within one millisecond. But the machinery does not respond so quickly. The mechanical system is subject to pressure, not pressure. Therefore, if the rate of change in pressure is not controlled, it is easy to jump to the set value of mechanical  CNC movable drilling machineequipment. Imagine you are driving, when you see a red light when you will gradually slow down to a gentle stop, rather than emergency stop. The pressure controller should do the same.
At least the following four points should be considered when performing pressure control:
1, the pressure sensor response time must be fast enough. In the case where the material is not easily compressed, it is common for the oil pressure to increase at a rate of 200 psi per millisecond. Pressure sensors with millisecond time constants are not fast enough to respond to pressure changes in use. The pressure response time constant must be 100 μs for proper operation. If a sensor is used for empirical measurement, it is at least ten times faster than expected.
2, the pressure sensor sampling time must be fast and have a fixed interval. In practical applications, such as the above-mentioned metal stamping, the pressure can change in just 10 milliseconds hundreds of psi.
3, the sampling time must be constant. If the scan time is 10 milliseconds at a time, and actually 9 milliseconds at a time, 11 milliseconds, the calculation of the pressure ratio will differ by at least 20 percent. Therefore, a constant sampling time is very important for accurate calculation of pressure change rate.
4, PLC is not necessarily the best choice. The function of the PID in the PLC is originally designed to control the temperature or pressure, not the fluid that is difficult to compress. When they are in the millisecond range, the time constant of the PID in the PLC is minute level. For pressure control, a specially designed PID controller is required.
Control options
First of all, to understand, although we can control the position, force or pressure, but at the same time can not do all three. In any position, if there is an obstruction, the actuator will be subject to a force of the same size, in the opposite direction of resistance. By performing the sinusoidal motion test with the actuator horizontal boring machine, we can monitor the pressure but can not control the pressure or force while controlling its position. Because the pressure or force is determined by the force exerted by the test sample on the actuator. The actuator can provide sinusoidal force or pressure, but its position is determined by the linearity of the elasticity of the test material.

horizontal boring machine

pressure
There may not be interference during motion, so trying to control pressure or force is meaningless. The advantage of controlling only pressure or force is that no position is considered. The operator can simply change the setpoint, but it must be noted that no-load condition. In a similar situation, the piston of the hydraulic cylinder is accelerated until the pressure matches the set value. In tests where only pressure or force is to be controlled, the speed of the actuator should be monitored to avoid a sudden drop in load. When the load is detected to disappear, the actuator may be switched to position or speed mode.
Position and pressure limits
Another option is to limit the position or speed by pressure or force limitations. By operating both control loops simultaneously, and passing only the minimum of the two control outputs to the hydraulic valve. Whether the system will reach the position setpoint or the pressure setpoint depends on which one is reached first. Therefore, if the load suddenly disappears when the cylinder is at the pressure setpoint, the pressure will drop Laser cutting robots and cause the pressure PID controller to generate a large control signal. However, as the system accelerates, the speed error decreases and the control signal from the PID speed controller decreases as the error decreases. The smaller of the two signals comes from the speed PID controller. So the actuator is now controlled by the position loop option and will not exceed the speed setpoint.
Pressure or force control of the start and regulation
Regulation is the process of selecting the best increment for optimal control of position, velocity, pressure or force. Adjusting the pressure or pressure control system is not the same as adjusting the position system because the hydraulic cylinder does not move too much when the pressure changes. The easiest way to adjust the pressure or force is to fully extend the actuator until the system pressure is reached, with all gains set to zero. Then, enter the setpoint or use only a small proportional gain in the PID. This “small” proportional gain can be estimated from:
This formula allows the operator to determine the position of the start-up adjustment that can not be determined during the pressure adjustment process. It is possible to start by finding a control signal with a full output of 10V or 40mA or 100% of the valve, and use the VCCM equation to calculate the maximum speed (see Jack L. Johnson PE, “Cylinder Motion Control Fundamental Electronics”). Table to determine. The dynamic equation must be divided by twice the area. This is because the piston side of the pressure increase along with the other side of the pressure drop.
Note: The estimated proportional gains are not accurate, but they are very close to the ideal initial values.
When the proportional gain is activated, the system pressure or force will reach the setpoint or approach it. The vast majority of the error is due to leakage caused. The next step is to slowly increase the integral gain so that the controller compensates or increases the flow until the error is zero.
The system is now controllable and can be tuned by dynamic response. Is achieved by adjusting the ramp between the two pressure bands of the operating frequency band. The pressure or force ramps should begin to grow slowly, because it is easier to maintain control. The PID gain should be adjustable to achieve better control. Attempting to adjust the pressure or force PID to respond to a step change in the system is very difficult, and it is difficult to obtain satisfactory results because a pressure shock can cause a leak. Smooth pressure transfer is a good solution. When changing pressure or force, the system action will depend on the pressure between the two set values ​​of growth and decline.
From position control to pressure or force control
Many applications require a combination of pressure or force control and position control, as shown in Figure 1:
The red line is the position of the cylinder; the horizontal axis is time; the vertical axis is the amplitude; the blue line is the pressure.
The establishment of such a system requires knowledge of mechanics and control. If the material is easily compressed, the transition from position control to pressure control is relatively easy because the material can absorb a lot of energy during deformation. Conversely, for metal and metal between the extrusion block and stop block, from the displacement control to pressure or force control is more difficult. Because the stop block can not absorb too much energy. But we can adjust the contact speed so that the total kinetic energy of the actuator and the die or the machine tool matches the energy absorbed and released on the workpiece. Simply put, because the hydraulic Drilling Machine for ring system  can not quickly change the direction or release the excess energy, if the implementing agencies and die movement speed fast enough, will produce transient pressure. If the actuator is too slow to approach the workpiece, the pressure will be delayed when it reaches the workpiece. This requires that the actuator be sufficiently pressurized at the beginning, and that this process is usually slow and does not reach the desired value.
There are some special considerations for adjusting the coordinate system for position control and pressure control. Often, it is helpful for the controller manufacturer to provide a paint adjustment tool. For example, using Delta’s RMCTool software, you can use the command buttons in the Adjust tool dialog to control the axis or ramp to the specified pressure within a specified time after selecting some initial constant PID and feedforward gain. This adjustment is done in both directions, and the target and actual values ​​can be compared at any time to determine if the gain parameters in the pressure control loop need to be changed.
Figure 2 is a very representative of the metal pressure map, which reflects the process of metal pressure control from the position to control a series of changes. At 0.1 second, the pressure ramps to a desired pressure value and is held for a short period of time during the metal stamping process; then the cycle is entered at approximately 0.4 seconds and the controller completes the stamping cycle by means of the transfer force control and the start of the reverse mode.

How to Identify the Advantages and Disadvantages of Traditional Steel by Intuitive Method

High-quality traditional steel trademarks and printing are more standardized, we usually see signs of ambiguity is likely to be inferior steel, the following Die Steel Co., Ltd. for the sum we summed up how to identify the advantages and disadvantages of ordinary steel through visual identification methods (Non-special steel). A, shoddy steel prone to folding. Folding is the formation of a variety of steel surface polyline, this defect is often throughout the product vertical. The reason for folding is due to the pursuit of high efficiency shoddy manufacturers, the amount of pressure is too large, resulting in ears, the next rolling to produce folding, folded products will break after bending, steel strength decreased. B, shoddy steel surface often have Ma surface phenomenon. Ma surface is due to rolling groove wear caused serious irregular irregularities of steel surface defects. As the shoddy steel manufacturers to pursue profits, rolling groove rolling often exceeded. C, shoddy steel surface is easy to produce scarring. There are two reasons: fake steel material is uneven, many impurities. Shoddy material manufacturers Guiding poorly equipped, easy to stick steel, these impurities bite the roll is easy to produce scarring. D, pseudo-inferior material surface is easy to crack, because it is the blank is adobe, adobe porous, adobe in the process of cooling due to the role of thermal stress, cracks, after rolling cracks. E, shoddy steel is easy to scratch, because shoddy material manufacturers simple equipment, easy to produce glitches, scratch the surface of steel. Deep scratches reduce the strength of the steel. F, shoddy steel without metallic luster, light red or similar pig iron color, there are two reasons: it is a blank billet. Fake and inferior materials rolling temperature is not standard, their steel temperature is through the visual, so can not according to the provisions of the austenitic region rolling, the performance of natural steel can not be achieved. G, shoddy steel bars of fine and low, often appear dissatisfied with the phenomenon, because the manufacturers to achieve a large negative tolerance Angle Drilling machine, finished a few Road before the amount of pressure is too large, small iron type, hole filling dissatisfaction. H, the cross-section of shoddy steel oval, because manufacturers in order to save material, the finished product before the two roll down the volume is too large, the strength of this steel greatly reduced, but also does not meet the screw steel dimensions .

 

I, the composition of high-quality steel uniformity, high-tonnage cold shearing machine, cutting head smooth and tidy end, and inferior materials because of poor material, cutting the end face often have the phenomenon of meat, rugged, and no metallic luster metal drilling machine. And because shoddy products manufacturers cut less head and tail will appear big ears. J, shoddy steel material containing impurities, steel density is too small, and the size of serious tolerance, so in the absence of vernier caliper case, it can be checked for weighing. For example, for rebar 20, the national standard provides a maximum negative tolerance of 5%, length 9M when its single theoretical weight of 120 kg, its minimum weight should be: 120X (L-5%) = 114 kg, Weighing out the actual weight of a single root than 114 kg, it is shoddy steel, because it is more than 5% negative tolerance. Generally speaking Busbar Processing Machine, the whole phase weighing effect will be better, mainly taking into account the cumulative error and probability theory. K, shoddy steel large diameter size fluctuations, due to:? Steel temperature instability with yin and yang side. • The composition of the steel is not uniform. ③ As the equipment is poor, low-intensity foundation, rolling mill bounce steel hole punch machine, there will be a change in diameter within the same week larger, so that the steel is not easy to produce stress fracture. L, 16 large diameter steel thread, the distance between the two trademarks are above the IM. Fake steel rebar is often wavy. Shoddy steel manufacturers because there is no traffic, so relatively loose package, the side was oval.

Pneumatic Press Background Technology

IPM Pneumatic Press Background Technology At present steel plate mark machine, in a variety of metal and non-metallic pipe, sheet metal punching areas, mostly using electric punch to complete the electric punch not only noise pollution environment CNC High Speed Drilling Machine, The body is bulky, and power consumption angle iron drill. When the operation of complex, high failure rate, security risks. But the pneumatic punch more health, clean!

chemical quality control facilities cnc punching machine

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Analysis of China’s machinery manufacturing industry affected by the economic

Analysis of China’s machinery manufacturing industry affected by the economic trend Affected by the inherent industrial structure angle punch machine, machinery and equipment manufacturing enterprises also account for a large proportion of listed companies in Shandong. The industry engaged in oil equipment manufacturing Jerry shares to 420 million yuan of net profit led the industry. Han cable from Qingdao to 285 million shares followed, the same from the steel structure in Qingdao, the Oriental Tower to 260 million yuan in third place. Comparison of the annual report found that the overall economic situation over the past year, the poor performance of the machinery and equipment manufacturing industry in Shandong Province Angle Drilling machine, an important part of the real economy caused a certain impact on the performance of many listed companies in the industry as a whole there has been a decline. Although the industry ranked second, but net profit fell Hanlin Cable 29.03% year on year, net profit in the top ten Weichai heavy machine fell 12 drilling machine suppliers.8% year on year, Shandong Molong is down 39%. With the industry in the last count of oil Ji Chai is a loss of 96560000 yuan, an increase of -673.8%. This also shows that machinery and equipment manufacturing in Shandong Province to support the industrial structure still need to be further optimized to enhance the ability to respond to market risks.